Lower and Higher Copies in Arabic


Abstract

This paper examines the phenomenon of copying in Standard Arabic (SA) within the copy theory. Following Boskovic and Nunes (2007), the researcher contends that Arabic utilizes two ways for the pronunciation of heads and copies governed by syntactic and phonological constraints. The highest link can be phonetically realized, or copies are pronounced instead of their heads by PLC without causing the derivation to crash. The paper shows how the copy theory accounts for the differences between perfective and imperative forms on one hand and the imperfective form on the other hand. The copy theory helps account for V-to-T0 movement in imperatives and perfectives in comparison with remaining in lower projections in imperfectives. Further, the research reveals that certain fixed word orders in Arabic can be accounted for in terms of the copy theory. The type of the object DP plays a role in which copy is realized, and hence affects word order. The higher copy of the object DP is pronounced when it is an enclitic object pronoun, while the lower copy is pronounced when the object is an R-expression DP. Addressing the topic of copying from a semantics-syntax interface perspective, the paper explains the bearings of copy operations on syntax.

Authors

Ayman Yasin

Keywords

Arabic, copying, imperatives and perfectives, syntax

Full Text :

http://ijaes.zu.edu.jo/article/fulltext/view?volume=19&issue=1&id=5

D:\Full_SourcePublished\volume19\issue1\5.pdf

References

Ali, Jafar. (1957). Tarikh Al-Arab qabla l-Islam [Arab Pre-Islam History] Baghdad: Matba’t al-majma’ al-‘lmi Al-iraqi. Aoun, Joseph, Elabbass Benmamoun, & Lina Choueiri. (2010). Arabic Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barjashtaser (1929). Al-TaTawwur Al-Nahawi li-Lughati Al-‘Arabiyya [The Syntactic Evolution of Arabic]. Egypt: Matba’t Al-Samah. Benmamoun, Elabbass. (2000). The Feature Structure of Functional Categories: A Comparative Study of Arabic Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bobaljik, Jonathan. (1995). Morphosyntax: The Syntax of Verbal Inflection. Doctoral Dissertation, Cambridge: MIT Press. Bobaljik, Jonathan. (2002). A-chains at the PF-interface: copies and covert movement. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 20 (2). 197-267. Boskovic, Zeljko and Jairo Nunes. (2007). ‘The copy theory of movement: A view from PF’. In Norbert Corver, & Jairo Nunes (eds.), The Copy Theory of Movement, 13-74. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Brody, Michael. (1995). Lexico-Logical Form: A Radically Minimalist Theory. Cambridge: MIT Press. Chomsky, Naom. (1993). ‘A minimalist program for linguistic theory’. In Kenneth Hale and Samuel Keyser (eds.), The Minimalist Program, 167-217. Cambridge: MIT Press. Chomsky, Naom. (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge: MIT Press. Vol. 1765. Chomsky, Naom. (2000). ‘Minimalist inquiries: The framework’. In Martin, Roger, David Michaels & Juan Uriagereka (eds.) Step by Step: Essays on Minimalist Syntax in Honor of Howard Lasnik, 89–155. Cambridge: MIT Press. Franks, Steven. (1998). ‘Clitics in Slavic. Paper presented at the Comparative Slavic Morphosyntax Workshop. Indiana Spencer Creek. Haddad, Yousef. (2012). Raising in Standard Arabic: Forward, backward, and none. In Reem Bassiouney & Graham Katz (eds.), Arabic Language and Linguistics, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Haegeman, Lilianne. (2009). Thinking Syntactically: A Guide to Argumentation and Analysis. John Wiley & Sons. Hiramatsu, Kazuko. (2000). Accessing Linguistic Competence: Evidence from Children’s and Adults Acceptability Judgments. Doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut: Storrs, CT, USA. Hornstein, Norbert, Jairo Nunes & Kleanthes Grohmann. (2010). Understanding Minimalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lambova, Mariana. (2002). ‘On A’-Movements in Bulgarian and their interaction’. The Linguistic Review 18:327-374. Lambova, Mariana. (2004). On Information Structure and Clausal Architecture: Evidence from Bulgarian. Doctoral dissertation. University of Connecticut: Storrs, CT, USA. Landau, Idan. (2003). Modular Recoverability: Chain Resolution in Hebrew VP-Fronting. Manuscript, Beer-Sheva, Israel. Miyoshi, Nobuhiro. (2002). Negative Imperatives and PF Merger. Manuscript, University of Connecticut: Storrs, CT, USA Nunes, Jairo. (1995). The Copy Theory of Movement and Linearization of Chains in the Minimalist Program. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park. MD, USA. Nunes, Jairo. (2001). ‘Sideward movement’. Linguistic Inquiry, 32(2), 303-344.‏ Nunes, Jairo. (2004). ‘Linearization of chains and sideward movement’. Linguistic Inquiry Monographs 43. MIT Press.‏ Pesetsky, David. (1997). ‘Optimality theory and syntax: Movement and pronunciation’. In Diana Archangeli & Donald Terence Langendoen (eds.) Optimality Theory: An Overview, 134- 170. Malden: Blackwell. Pesetsky, David. (1998). ‘Some optimality principles of sentence pronunciation’. In Barbosa Fox, Paul Hagstrom, Martha McGinnis, and David Pesetsky (eds.), Is the Best Good Enough, 337-383. Cambridge: MIT Press and MIT WPL. Radford, Andrew. (2009). An Introduction to English Sentence Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Roberts, Ian. (1997). ‘Restructuring, head movement, and locality’. Linguistic Inquiry 28: 423-460. Runner, Jeffrey. (2013). Noun Phrase Licensing. Oxfordshire: Routledge. Uriagereka, Juan. (1999). ‘Multiple spell-out’. In Samuel David Epstein and Norbert Hornstein (eds.), Working Minimalism, 251-282. MIT Press. Mass, USA.